aSMtris - Tetris in assembly language (x86, 16-bit)
Last updated on June 7, 2016, 8:58 by Sebastian Mihai
After completing an C#/XNA game project, I really wanted to delve down to the metal again, and what better way to do so than with assembly language? I wrote my last assembly program back in 2000 (it was a Nibbles-like attempt), but did not actually complete it. Fourteen years later, I decided that writing a game in assembly language was a loose end that had to be tied.

aSMtris continues to be updated with new features in the version for my Snowdrop OS operating system.
Visit the Snowdrop OS project page to learn more.

Note: I've noticed the flickering that can be seen in this video only in the DOSBox emulator, and not on actual hardware.

The aSMtris executable is very small in size, at nearly 2 kilobytes. Comparatively, it takes up the same space as a tiny, 50 by 50 pixel JPEG image. The difference, of course, is that the 50 by 50 pixel JPEG image is nearly useless (possibly making a good icon, and that's about it), whereas aSMtris is a full game.
That being said, for the same amount of space, 2 kilobytes, you can play Tetris, or you can stare at the crappy image below:
aSMtris will run out of the box in Windows XP and earlier, including, of course, MS-DOS. For later operating systems, download the free DOSBox emulator which will run aSMtris without problems.


source code - the single-file aSMtris source code
executable - the MS-DOS .COM executable. Use with Windows XP or older, or with the DOSBox emulator
dev kit - aSMtris source packaged with the NASM assembler, and a simple make batch file



Keeping everything in one source code file just seemed right when dealing with assembly language. It's a large file, but that's because about 85% of the contents are comments, and the other 15% is the actual program. Since this is as far away as you can be from self-documenting code, I've never before written so much documentation per line of code. No fancy tools were used; just Notepad++ and the NASM assembler. Development took about four weeks.

One aspect I found very interesting is the types of bugs I encountered and squashed during development. They were unlike those you'd expect to find in programs written using high level languages, both in nature and in how they manifest.

The first example is a bug which sometimes caused pieces to go through other pieces and through the walls, but not always. It took me about thirty minutes to find and fix it, and the fix was changing a 2 to a 1. What I had meant to do is multiply a register by 2, which can easily be accomplished by shifting its bits to the left one position. Due to my carelessness, I shifted by 2 bits, effectively multiplying by 4.

Now, in my day to day development I use short-circuiting out of loops whenever I can. As soon as I tried it in assembly, I wrote a bug. I was writing two nested loops. Both used the x86 instruction "loop", which meant that both used register cx as a loop counter. This, of course, meant that whenever entering the inner loop, cx had to be pushed on the stack, and then popped off the stack when the inner loop was left. My mistake was that I was jumping (short-circuiting) out of both the inner loop and outer loop, but left an extra value on the stack. Needless to say, not a fun one to debug.

In terms of bug manifestations, they varied from the screen becoming corrupt and crazy, to the internal speaker beeping uncontrollably, to the program simply crashing immediately after starting.

aSMtris was a really fun project because of the inherent pleasure to be had from knowing exactly what is happening at any point in your game code. Assembly language seems to be less and less relevant due to ever faster hardware, but take my word for it, it's very satisfying when you complete a project using it. When it works, that is...
If you use the materials on this page, or any other page on this web site, you do so at your own risk. They are provided "as is". No warranty is provided or implied. I neither guarantee that the materials will work, nor that they will not be harmful in any way.

Electronic circuits - CMOS buffer

Electronic circuits - driving higher current loads through parallel port

Electronic circuits - interfacing a Nintendo NES from Snowdrop OS

Electronic circuits - 3-bit current buffered DAC

Electronic circuits - stepper motor driver controlled by Snowdrop OS

Electronic circuits - parallel port interface

Snowmine - a Minesweeper-like game for Snowdrop OS (in x86 assembly)

Storks - a matching game for Snowdrop OS (in x86 assembly)

Electronic circuits - interfacing with a 16x2 LCD via parallel port

Electronic circuits - square wave vs. sine wave (audio differences)

Electronic circuits - Catch That LED!

Electronic circuits - parallel port light show

Electronic circuits - the Annoizer (555 speaker circuit)

Intellivision development - Hotel Bunny

Coverage of my projects

Interviewed in the Retro Gamer magazine

My homebrew cartridges

ZX Spectrum development - Husband Chores (in Z80 assembly language)

No Snakes! - a multiplayer game over serial port

Sega Dreamcast development - Overbearing Burgers

Snowdrop OS - my operating system from scratch, in assembly language

libzx - ZX Spectrum game programming library (Z80 assembly language)

Compact Pong - game in C# for the Pocket PC (Windows Mobile 2003)

TOTP (time-based one-time password) authenticator in C# (.Net)

aSMtris - Tetris in assembly language (x86, 16-bit)

Balanced Diet (GBA) limited edition

Gameboy Advance development - Balanced Diet

Atari 7800 development - Poetiru

Arcade ROM hacking - Knights of the Round translation

PocketStation development - Pocket Worm

Sega Game Gear development - Burgers of Hanoi GG

Pokemon Mini development - Mini Cookie

Magnavox Odyssey2 development - Red Green

Sega Dreamcast VMU development - Raining Squares

Nintendo GameCube development - Mama Bear Puzzle

Nintendo Wii development - Groundhog Puzzle

Sega Saturn development - Saturnade

Atari Jaguar development - Jagmatch

Sega CD development - Blackjack CD

Nintendo 64 development - Don't Be Square

Commodore 64 development - Tube64

Sega 32x development - Eight Queens

WonderSwan (Mono) development - Swan Driving BW

WonderSwan Color development - Swan Driving

Animal Keeper - a JavaScript and HTML5 Canvas game

3DO development - Space Invaders Invaders

Sony PlayStation development - The 11th Power

Sony PSP development - Newton Voyage

Nintendo DS development - Geoincursion

Gold of the Kingdoms - an XNA/C# homebrew game

Blue Elf 2 309-in-1 JAMMA PCB - troubleshoot controls not working

Fractals in JavaScript and HTML5 Canvas

Angry Video Game Nerd (AVGN) theme song on the Gameboy Advance

Novice calligraphy - Gothic hand, with letter guide

Video compilation of my classic console homebrew games

Seven segment display circuit with the 4511 decoder and the 4029 counter

A simple Atari 2600 joystick tester circuit

555 timer and 4017 decade counter - traffic lights circuit

Catch That LED! - an electronic game circuit

Capacitor study circuit

BlackBerry PlayBook development - Sheepish Bearings (Native SDK, OpenGL)

Neo Geo Pocket Color development - NGCollector

Neo Geo development - Neo Thunder

Atari 5200 development - Shooting Gallery

ZX Spectrum development - simple input/graphics example

Vectrex development - Scalar Ownage

Nintendo Virtual Boy development - Real Danger

Gameboy Color development - Burly Bear vs. The Mean Foxes (GBC version)

Sega Master System development - Burgers of Hanoi

Colecovision development - Mowleco

TurboGrafx-16/PC Engine development - Alddee

Atari Lynx development - Catkanoid

Nintendo NES development - Invaders must die!

Atari 2600 development - Snappy (batari basic)

Super Nintendo development - Bucket

Gameboy Advance development - smgbalib library

Airplane Vegas slot machine

Sega Genesis development - Gen Poker

(2004) Project One - first university game programming club project

Gameboy development - Burly Bear vs. The Mean Foxes

(2006) RGB Overdose - university programming contest entry