Catch That LED! - an electronic game circuit

It was awesome when I got a standard 555 circuit to work and flash a LED. Soon after, I replaced the LED with a speaker. Then I thought - I can now do sound, LEDs can be a decent UI, and buttons can be inputs; I can make a game! Some of the inspiration came from a win-real-prizes type machine I saw at the movie theatre. In Catch That LED!, you are testing your reflexes and sense of timing by trying to "catch" the green LED. A high-pitched sound indicates success.

The difficulty can be adjusted via the potentiometer. Higher difficulty means faster LEDs, and therefore harder to catch.

As an additional mode, the circuit can be used as a flashy random number generator (generating one out of ten numbers), by reducing the resistance in the LED timer as well as using a smaller capacitor. The result is that the output frequency of the 555 chip will increase, so the LEDs will appear to all be on at once, and when the switch is activated, only one LED will remain on, "randomly".

Circuit details

The circuit is made up of the following parts:
A. Sound component - It is based on a 555 timer in astable mode, connected to a speaker. It outputs continuously, unless the player activated the input switch at the wrong time (see component F below). The frequency is modified by resistors connected in parallel, and through transistors. This allows for different sounds to play. There are two sounds being played alternatingly as the LEDs turn on and off, and a third sound for when the player wins.
Notable is the capacitor connected in series with the speaker, which is meant to allow only alternating current through, so that the speaker is driven properly.

B. LED timing component - It is also based on a 555 timer in astable mode. Its output is much lower frequency than the sound 555 chip so that there's a visible delay between the LEDs turning on and off. There is a potentiometer connected in series with the other two resistors, which controls the difficulty of the game.

C. The LED component - It uses the output from the LED timer input into a decade counter chip. Each of the counter's ten pins goes high and then low, sequentially, turning on and off each LED. Every other LED also inputs into an OR gate. This determines when the second sound is played, as the output of the OR gate is input into the base of a transistor. When this happens, a resistor is connected in parallel with a static resistor which determines the sound frequency. The effect is that every other LED, the sound will be higher in frequency, as the resistance in the sound component is decreased.

D. Player input component - It is based on a SPDT switch connected to the "clock inhibit" pin on the decade counter. When the switch is in the default position, the pin is grounded, so the counter operates normally. When the player switches to the on position, the pin is connected to +9V. This causes pulses on the clock pin to be ignored, essentially freezing the counter. Whatever counter output pin was high at the time will be kept high, keeping the respective LED on.

E. Win detection component - It is done via an AND gate which ANDs together the value at the "clock inhibit" pin and the green LED. The output of the AND operation is input into a transistor, which adds a low resistance in parallel to the resistance which controls the frequency of the sound component. The effect is significantly lower resistance in the sound generator, resulting in a higher-pitched sound, indicating a win.
In logic notation,
p = the player activated the input switch
q = the green LED is on

Therefore, Win = p AND q

F. Sound stopping component - If the player activates the input switch at the wrong time (as in, the green LED is not lit), a transistor will open the sound component, so that no sound will play. At all other times, the sound is playing.
Here's the table of truth for this scenario; a "1" in the output means sound is playing.
p = the player activated the input switch
q = the green LED is on
like above, then

p q output
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 0
1 1 1

Notice that the output is simply p -> q (IF p THEN q), which can be reduced as such:
SoundPlaying = p -> q = q OR (NOT p)
If you use the materials on this page, or any other page on this web site, you do so at your own risk. They are provided "as is". No warranty is provided or implied. I neither guarantee that the materials will work, nor that they will not be harmful in any way.

Snowdrop OS assembler and debugger

Electronic circuits - CMOS buffer

Electronic circuits - driving higher current loads through parallel port

Electronic circuits - interfacing a Nintendo NES from Snowdrop OS

Electronic circuits - 3-bit current buffered DAC

Electronic circuits - stepper motor driver controlled by Snowdrop OS

Electronic circuits - parallel port interface

Snowmine - a Minesweeper-like game for Snowdrop OS (in x86 assembly)

Storks - a matching game for Snowdrop OS (in x86 assembly)

Electronic circuits - interfacing with a 16x2 LCD via parallel port

Electronic circuits - square wave vs. sine wave (audio differences)

Electronic circuits - Catch That LED!

Electronic circuits - parallel port light show

Electronic circuits - the Annoizer (555 speaker circuit)

Intellivision development - Hotel Bunny

Coverage of my projects

Interviewed in the Retro Gamer magazine

My homebrew cartridges

ZX Spectrum development - Husband Chores (in Z80 assembly language)

No Snakes! - a multiplayer game over serial port

Sega Dreamcast development - Overbearing Burgers

Snowdrop OS - my operating system from scratch, in assembly language

libzx - ZX Spectrum game programming library (Z80 assembly language)

Compact Pong - game in C# for the Pocket PC (Windows Mobile 2003)

TOTP (time-based one-time password) authenticator in C# (.Net)

aSMtris - Tetris in assembly language (x86, 16-bit)

Balanced Diet (GBA) limited edition

Gameboy Advance development - Balanced Diet

Atari 7800 development - Poetiru

Arcade ROM hacking - Knights of the Round translation

PocketStation development - Pocket Worm

Sega Game Gear development - Burgers of Hanoi GG

Pokemon Mini development - Mini Cookie

Magnavox Odyssey2 development - Red Green

Sega Dreamcast VMU development - Raining Squares

Nintendo GameCube development - Mama Bear Puzzle

Nintendo Wii development - Groundhog Puzzle

Sega Saturn development - Saturnade

Atari Jaguar development - Jagmatch

Sega CD development - Blackjack CD

Nintendo 64 development - Don't Be Square

Commodore 64 development - Tube64

Sega 32x development - Eight Queens

WonderSwan (Mono) development - Swan Driving BW

WonderSwan Color development - Swan Driving

Animal Keeper - a JavaScript and HTML5 Canvas game

3DO development - Space Invaders Invaders

Sony PlayStation development - The 11th Power

Sony PSP development - Newton Voyage

Nintendo DS development - Geoincursion

Gold of the Kingdoms - an XNA/C# homebrew game

Blue Elf 2 309-in-1 JAMMA PCB - troubleshoot controls not working

Fractals in JavaScript and HTML5 Canvas

Angry Video Game Nerd (AVGN) theme song on the Gameboy Advance

Novice calligraphy - Gothic hand, with letter guide

Video compilation of my classic console homebrew games

Seven segment display circuit with the 4511 decoder and the 4029 counter

A simple Atari 2600 joystick tester circuit

555 timer and 4017 decade counter - traffic lights circuit

Catch That LED! - an electronic game circuit

Capacitor study circuit

BlackBerry PlayBook development - Sheepish Bearings (Native SDK, OpenGL)

Neo Geo Pocket Color development - NGCollector

Neo Geo development - Neo Thunder

Atari 5200 development - Shooting Gallery

ZX Spectrum development - simple input/graphics example

Vectrex development - Scalar Ownage

Nintendo Virtual Boy development - Real Danger

Gameboy Color development - Burly Bear vs. The Mean Foxes (GBC version)

Sega Master System development - Burgers of Hanoi

Colecovision development - Mowleco

TurboGrafx-16/PC Engine development - Alddee

Atari Lynx development - Catkanoid

Nintendo NES development - Invaders must die!

Atari 2600 development - Snappy (batari basic)

Super Nintendo development - Bucket

Gameboy Advance development - smgbalib library

Airplane Vegas slot machine

Sega Genesis development - Gen Poker

(2004) Project One - first university game programming club project

Gameboy development - Burly Bear vs. The Mean Foxes

(2006) RGB Overdose - university programming contest entry